Tree of Heaven vs. Staghorn Sumac. How can you tell the difference in Winter?

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Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima and Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, can be difficult to differentiate in the winter months.

 

Sumac vs. Ailanthus

 

However, on close inspections of stems, buds, fruit pods and trunk, you can tell the difference.

Tree of Heaven is a favored host of Spotted Lantern Fly, Lycorma delicatula. By identifying this tree and eradicating it from the landscape, you can help to reduce the attraction of Spotted Lantern Fly to your site.

Staghorn Sumac does tend to retain its fruit through the winter.(pictured below)

 

Sumac head

 

Tree of Heaven tend to lose its seed pods but can retain them in the winter.(Pictured below)

 

Ailanthus head

flower

 

flower 2

 

 

Staghorn Sumac shown below:

Rhus 1

Rhus 2

 

Rhus 3

Tree of Heaven on the other hand has a distictive bud scar shown below:

Ailanthus 1

Ailanthus 2

Ailanthus 3

 

 

The base of the trunk on Sumac tends to be smooth.(Below)

 

sumac trunk

 

Tree of Heaven tends to develop fissures at the base. (Pictured below)

 

ailanthus trunk

 

When growing together, which can be common, you can begin to see the difference. (Sumac in the foreground, Tree of Heaven behind)

 

compare

compare contrast

 

As the trees leaf out, identification can be easier (See BYGL post attached):

 

https://bygl.osu.edu/index.php/node/1346